Latin American Independence Unit 4 Notes Unit 4 Key Terms (7 3, 7 6) Latin American Independence Unit 4 Notes Causes of Latin American Independence Учебный сайт
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Latin American Independence Unit 4 Notes Unit 4 Key Terms (7 3, 7 6)





Latin American Independence

Unit 4 Notes


Unit 4 Key Terms (7-3.3, 7-3.6)

7-3.3 (p.107-110)
  • peninsulares

  • creoles

  • mestizos

  • mulattos

  • Toussaint-Louverture

  • Miguel Hidalgo

  • José María Morelos

  • Simón Bolivar

  • José de San Martin



Unit 4 Key Terms

  • peninsulares – colonial leaders born in Spain or Portugal who stood at the top of government and society

  • creoles – descendants of Portuguese or Spanish settlers born in the colonies who resented the upper class looking down on them

  • mestizos – people of mixed Spanish and Native American ancestry who worked as servants, laborers, or overseers on plantations and they had few, if any, rights

  • mulattos – people of mixed African and European descent and were among the lowest levels of society



Unit 4 Key Terms

  • Toussaint-Louverture – former slave who led the revolt against French rule in Haiti

  • Miguel Hidalgo and José María Morelos – Mexican priests who led mestizos and Native Americans in a revolution against Spain, both were defeated and executed

  • Simón Bolivar – the “South American George Washington” who led the fight against Spain in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador

  • José de San Martin – leader of the revolutions against Spain in Argentina and Chile



Unit 4 Key Terms

  • Congress of Vienna – meeting of European leaders following the defeat of Napoleon in order to create a balance of power and restore Europe to the way it was before the French Revolution

  • nationalism – the belief that one’s greatest loyalty is to a shared culture (including aspects of common history, language, religion, and nationality) rather than to a leader or border

  • Louis-Napoleon – nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, president and eventual emperor of France who brought stability and industry to France



Unit 4 Key Terms

  • Camillo di Cavour – leader of the unification of the Northern Italian states

  • Victor Emmanuel – king of Piedmont-Sardinia and the first king of united Italy

  • Giuseppe Garibaldi – a master of guerilla warfare and leader of the Red Shirts, he led the unification of Italy in the south



Unit 4 Key Terms

  • Wilhelm I – Prussian king who would become the first Kaiser, or emperor, of a united Germany

  • Otto von Bismarck – Prussian prime minister who would use war to convince other German states to join a unified Germany

  • realpolitik – the politics of reality, the belief by Bismarck that speeches and idealism accomplished nothing and that action was required to achieve goals

  • Ems Telegram – message that Bismarck leaked to the public that made it seem that Wilhelm I had insulted a French ambassador in hopes that it would provoke the French into war



Timeline of Independence

  • 1804 – Haiti

  • 1811 – Paraguay

  • 1816 – Argentina

  • 1818 – Chile

  • 1821

    • Mexico
    • Colombia
    • Peru
  • 1822 – Brazil

  • 1823 – Guatemala

  • 1825 – Bolivia

  • 1828 – Uruguay

  • 1830

    • Ecuador
    • Venezuela


Causes of Latin American Independence

  • inspiration from the Enlightenment and American and French Revolutions

  • increasing feelings of nationalism

  • an abusive social order in Latin America



A Strict Social Order



Haiti: The Model for Revolution

  • model for revolution took place in Santo Domingo (Haiti) on the island of Hispaniola

  • the colony belonged to France

  • nearly all its inhabitants were slaves

  • rebellion led by Toussaint-Louverture began in 1791 with 100,000 slaves

  • by 1801, he had taken control of the colony and freed all enslaved Africans



Haiti: The Model for Revolution

  • in 1802, France sent troops to deal with the situation

  • Louverture was captured and sent to France where he died in a French prison in 1803

  • the French could not stop the rebellion and in 1804, Haiti declared its independence, the only successful slave revolt in history

  • this was the first colony south of the United States to win independence as well





Revolution in Mexico

  • in Mexico, the revolt was led by two Catholic priests

    • Miguel Hidalgo – called for peasant revolt
    • José María Morelos – skilled military leader
  • the revolt began in 1810 – mestizos and Native Americans threatened the power of the peninsulares and the creoles

  • both leaders were captured – Hidalgo in 1811 and Morelos in 1815



Revolution in Mexico

  • Mexican independence was finally achieved in 1821

  • this happened because Mexican creoles, who were afraid to lose their power to the lower classes, declared independence from Spain

  • in 1823, the nations of Central America declared independence from Mexico



South American Independence

  • José de San Martin led revolutions in

    • Argentina
    • Chile
  • Simón Bolivar (also known as Libertador)

    • Venezuela
    • Colombia (including Panama)
    • Ecuador
  • the two men joined forces in Peru to drive out the Spanish

  • by the end of 1824, nearly all of South America had successfully revolted and won independence



Simón Bolivar

  • known as the “South American George Washington” or “Liberator”

  • wanted to unite all of Spain’s South American colonies into one country known as Gran Colombia

  • this happened briefly but political issues separated the countries into their own independent states by 1830



Challenges for New Nations

  • wide social divisions

  • power in the hands of small groups

  • some used military power to govern

  • economic pressure from the U.S. and European countries



South American Independence

  • By what year had most of South America gained its independence?

  • What was unique about Brazil’s independence?

  • If you were the leader of a newly independent country, what would be the first thing you would do? Why?



Review Questions

  • The first Latin American country to gain independence was ______.

    • Haiti
    • Venezuela
    • Chile
    • Cuba


The leader of the Independence movement in Venezuela was ______.

  • The leader of the Independence movement in Venezuela was ______.

    • Marquis de Lafayette
    • Toussaint L’ouverture
    • Miguel Hidalgo
    • Simon Bolivar


The people of Haiti gained their independence in 1804 from ______.

  • The people of Haiti gained their independence in 1804 from ______.

    • Great Britain
    • The United States
    • Germany
    • France


Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar brought independence to all of the following nations except _____.

  • Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar brought independence to all of the following nations except _____.

    • Brazil
    • Peru
    • Colombia
    • Ecuador


During the 1800s, revolutions changed governments throughout Latin America. Which of the following groups governed Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America prior to the revolutions of 1800s?

  • During the 1800s, revolutions changed governments throughout Latin America. Which of the following groups governed Spanish and Portuguese colonies in Latin America prior to the revolutions of 1800s?

    • Creoles
    • Peninsulares
    • Mestizos
    • Mulattos


Who Am I?

  • I led revolts in Chile and Argentina. I eventually joined with another revolutionary to liberate Peru.



Who Am I?

  • I was a Catholic priest and military leader. I took up the cause of independence in Mexico after the death of another priest. I was executed long before my country achieved its goal of independence.



Who Am I?

  • I began the revolt against the power of the peninsulares and creoles in Mexico in 1810. I was executed in July of 1811, long before my country would see independence. I still can’t believe they executed a priest.



Who Am I?

  • Some call me the “South American George Washington” or “Liberator.” I led the countries of Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador to freedom. Then I joined with another leader to free Peru. I now have statues all over South America.



Who Am I?

  • Some say I started it all. I was a slave on the French sugar island now known as Haiti. It was called Santo Domingo. Even though I was in prison, my island gained independence in 1804. It was the first country south of the U.S. to gain independence.



Nationalism and German and Italian Unification

Unit 4 Continued

What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • What three things were accomplished by the Congress of Vienna?

    • reestablished the balance of power to Europe
    • restore the monarchs removed by Napoleon
    • suppress (stop) the democratic movement encouraged by the French Revolution
  • What three ideals fed the nationalist movements of the 1830s and 1840s?

    • liberty (freedom)
    • equality
    • fraternity (brotherhood)


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • What is nationalism?

    • the belief that one’s greatest loyalty is to a shared culture rather than to a leader or a border
    • cultural identity – pride in one’s own country that is based on shared customs and a common history (workbook definition)
    • nationalism is very closely related to patriotism


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • What were the two main aspects of nationalist movements in the 1800s?

    • unification – people with similar cultures from different places joining together in one new country (Germany and Italy are examples)
    • separation – groups breaking away from a government to create a new one that better represents their own interests (Greece is an example)


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • Who led nationalist movements that created new nation-states (countries)?

    • they were led by liberals and radicals
  • Where did nationalist movements in Europe begin?

    • they began in Greece with their rebellion against the Ottoman Empire beginning in 1821
    • Greece had the support of Britain, France, and Russia and became an independent country in 1830


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • What happened to most nationalist revolutions by 1849?

    • most were suppressed (stopped) by conservatives by 1849
    • the one exception was in France


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • Describe what happened to each of the following leaders in France:

    • Charles X – French king who tried to establish an absolute monarchy and failed and was replaced with Louis-Philippe
    • Louis-Philippe – French king who ruled until 1848 before economic problems caused him to lose favor with the people and he was overthrown and France became a republic under the control of moderates
    • Louis Napoleon – at first he was elected as president of the French republic but soon took advantage of political problems and declared himself emperor Napoleon III – he would bring stability and industry to France








What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • Explain how Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi united Italy.

    • Cavour led the unification of the northern Italian states
    • he was the prime minister of the kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia – the largest and most powerful Italian state
    • Piedmont-Sardinia had a liberal constitution that appealed to many of the middle classes
    • many neighboring northern Italian states saw this as a good thing and unified with Piedmont-Sardinia
    • with help from France, Cavour also won northern Italian territory that was previously held by Austria


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • Explain how Count Camillo di Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi united Italy (cont.).

    • Garibaldi led unification of the southern Italian states
    • Garibaldi was a soldier and leader of a group called the Red Shirts
    • using military force, he captured Sicily in the south
    • Cavour convinced Garibaldi to unite the two sections of Italian states under King Victor Emmanuel II (king of Piedmont-Sardinia) with Rome as its capital
    • a short time later, Venetia and the Papal States were added to Italy as well






What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • Who was Victor Emmanuel II?

    • king of Piedmont-Sardinia
    • in 1860, he became king of unified Italy


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • Describe the German Confederation.

    • 39 loosely joined states
    • Austria and Prussia were the largest and most powerful
    • Prussia had mainly Germanic population, strong army, and a liberal constitution which appealed to many Germans and made unification easier
    • Prussia’s ruler was Wilhelm I and he had the support of conservative Prussian nobles called Junkers
  • Who was Otto von Bismarck?

    • Junker from Prussia
    • prime minister of Prussia under Wilhelm I
    • he would ultimately take full control of Prussia






What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • What was Bismarck’s policy of realpolitik?

    • “the politics of reality”
    • power politics without any notions of a perfect world – no room for idealism
    • speeches decide nothing – only hard work and real effort (“blood and iron”) got things done
    • Bismarck’s efforts to unify Germany was the idea of realpolitik in action


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

  • Bismarck fought three different wars of unification, the first being to take land from Denmark. Describe the role of the following in making German unification final:

    • Seven Weeks War
    • Bismarck purposefully created border conflicts with Austria in hopes of provoking them to attack Prussia
    • in 1866, Prussia defeated Austria, becoming the sole dominant power in the German Confederation
    • German states that had supported Austria now supported Prussia
    • Prussia did not claim Austria


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

    • Ems Telegram
    • King Wilhelm I of Prussia had a meeting with a French ambassador
    • the French made demands of Prussia under the threat of war
    • he relayed the message from the meeting to Bismarck
    • Bismarck changed the wording of the message to make the French ambassador sound threatening and Wilhelm uncooperative
    • the telegram was released to the press and printed in the newspapers
    • the goal was for the French to see it and be provoked into fighting with Prussia – it worked


What Every Student Should Know About Standard 7-3.6 Questions

    • Franco-Prussian War
    • Bismarck had hoped France would declare war following the publication of the Ems Telegram
    • Napoleon III declared war on Prussia in July of 1870
    • by May of 1871, France was defeated and Napoleon III was captured
    • all the German states rallied behind Prussia and united to form the German Empire
    • Germany took territory from France that would be disputed for many years
    • this upset the balance of power that had returned to Europe following the Congress of Vienna in 1815

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2010-05-02 19:40
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